Is a baby a miniature version of an adult?

The physiological characteristics of children (a) delicate viscera, shape gas is not filled with “viscera” namely viscera;
“Delicate” means small and weak.jiao
Small is the morphological characteristic, weak is the texture characteristic.
Form is everything
A general term for the corporeal body, including viscera, limbs, skeletons, fur,
The five senses, tendons, meridians and collaterals also include jing, qi, blood,
Body fluid and other basic substances for the survival of the human body;”Qi” refers to various physiological functions, including the transport and change of substances.”Not filled” is insufficient.(2) Vitality and rapid development “Vitality” means vitality and vigor;
“Development” includes all forms
Quality units, such as zang-fu organs, meridians, bones, blood vessels, and small
The maturation of wholeness and function.The younger a child is, the more he develops
Quickly.Such as children’s physical development peak at about 1 year old, intelligent development
The peak is around age 3.Pathological characteristics (1) the onset of disease is easy, the rapid change of physiology determines pathology, physiological abnormality is pathology.(2) Dirty qi qingling, easy to recover “qing” refers to clean;
“Spirit” is dexterity.Dirty qi qingling summed up the small
Children viscera, qi and blood and meridian purge state, determines the external children
The boundary stimulus is fast in induction, transmission, integration and response.Can quickly
Induction, fast transmission, fast integration, fast response.Children physiological constant height height (long) refers to the length of the whole body from the top of the head to the sole of the foot,
Length of spine and lower limb.Height is a reflection of bone development
Is an important index, divided into upper quantity and lower quantity.Height (cm) of children aged 2-12 = 70+7× age.Generally 3 years old or more standing height measurement;Height measured in supine position under 3 years of age.Fontanelle divided into the anterior fontanelle and the posterior fontanelle, the fontanelle directly reflects the skull space in children
Closed case.Late closure of anterior fontanelle or too large in cranial solution, rickets, or hydrocephalus;
Fontanelle depression, or qi deficiency, or extreme weight loss;
Fontanelle excessive fullness suggests increased intracranial pressure, common in encephalitis, brain
Children with meningitis or brain tumors.Circumference Finger circumference, chest circumference and abdominal circumference.Teeth A person has 20 baby teeth and 32 permanent teeth in his life.Deciduous teeth are 4 to 10 months old
Start to grow, 12 months still do not grow abnormal.2 ~ 2.5 years old
The baby teeth are all out.Teething order is first down then up, from front to back
Sprout (with the exception of fangs).Number of deciduous teeth within 2 years = month age — 4(or 6) Fingerprint fingerprinting is a unique diagnostic method in pediatrics of TRADITIONAL Chinese medicine.Mainly for age 3
The following children.Fingerprint is the index finger radial side of the superficial vein, also known as the tiger
Mouth three passes, from the root of the index finger to the fingertip are respectively feng Guan, Qi Guan,
Life, to some extent, reflects the changes of zang-fu organs, channels and collaterals, qi and blood
Change and the rise and fall of good and evil.The ancients summarized it as “in the scale of floating and sinking,
Red and purple distinguish cold and heat, calm stagnation and set the false and real, and measure the severity of three passes.”
.Excretion of meconium within the first 3 days of the second defecation newborn.The number of stools varies greatly among individuals.From 1-2 times a day to at least 2 times a week
Times.Normal children urine color clear, white or yellowish, no smell.Infants and young children each
The difference in the number of times of urination is large, 4 ~ 6 times a day after birth at the beginning of 1 year old
About 20 times in the first year, 15 to 16 times by the age of 1, and then gradually reduced to school age
Six to seven times.Respiration, pulse and blood pressure The younger the age, the faster the respiration and pulse frequency, the lower the blood pressure.Along with the
Respiration, pulse rate and blood pressure gradually decrease with age
Increased.Body temperature Normal temperature of children are: anal temperature 36.5 ~ 37.5℃, mouth
Temperature 36.3 ~ 37.2℃, axillary temperature 36 ~ 37℃, between individuals
Differences.It fluctuates from day to day.Lowest in the morning, highest in the evening.Blood sugar A blood glucose meter is used to measure blood sugar.Take more fasting venous blood or fingertip blood.
The normal reference value is 3.9 ~ 6.1mmol/L, which is low for newborns.Fasting blood glucose ≥7.0mmol/L or 2 hours postprandial blood glucose
≥11.1mmol/L is diabetes mellitus.1. Oral mucosa in children with digestive system is tender and rich in blood vessels, which is easy to damage and bleed.
Therefore, the oral cavity should be wiped gently, so as not to damage the mucous membrane and cause infection.Neonatal salivary gland development is incomplete, saliva secretion is little.5 ~ 6
Months later, saliva by teething stimulation and increase, at this time the child has not yet shaped
Swallowing habit, which is the cause of physiological salivation.Nervous systemThe nervous system is the earliest and fastest developing system in children.The development of children’s nerve conduction system is relatively lagging, which is manifested as infants and young children
Hypoplasia of nerve fiber myelin sheath and pyramidal tract.Children are born with certain innate food and defense reflexes,
Such as sucking, swallowing, pain, cold, strong light, etc.As the brain
And various organs develop to form various acquired reflexes.Three, circulation system newborn heart volume is relatively large, cardiothoracic ratio > 0.5, school age
Anterior heart shadow approaching adult.Before 2 years old, the heart was transverse, after 2 years old with standing, walking, lung and chest
The heart changes from transverse to oblique position due to factors such as partial development and diaphragmatic descent.Children due to metabolism, vagus nerve hypoplasia, sympathetic nerve
Excitability predominates and heart rate is high.And the younger you are, the more heart rate you have
Fast.4. The overall volume of the lungs is small, the volume of the alveoli is small, and the bronchus and alveolar tubes are small
Narrow lumen, thin mucosa, short airway cilia, lung hyaline membrane development
Bad.Pulmonary ventilation is less than the volume of congestion, alveolar ventilation is insufficient, breathing activity
Poor degree, gland and mucous membrane secretion function.Children must speed up breathing to ensure their physiological needs, so children
Breathing generally shallow, and paroxysmal quickening or uneven.Five, urinary system newborn two kidney weight is about 1/125 of the body weight (about adult weight
1/220).In infants, the kidneys are lower, as low as the iliac crest,
That is, the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra reaches above the iliac crest only after the age of 2.The right kidney is slightly lower than the left.Within 2 years of age, the kidney is often touched in the abdomen.Six, skeletal system in children’s bones and inorganic salts accounted for 1/2 each (adult organic matter
Accounting for 1/3, inorganic salt accounting for 2/3).So children have soft bones,
Full of elasticity, good toughness, not easy to fracture, but easy to be affected by external force shadow
The ringing is deformed to produce hollow, humpbacked, or scoliosis of the ribs
Bending, etc.Seven, immune system neonatal spleen weight of about 10g, relatively large;Midline of left clavicle
Under the costal margin, it is mostly inaccessible and soft in texture.Infant serum promotes swallowing
The function of phagocytosis factor is lower than that of adults, neutrophils migrate and phagocytosis
Poor performance, but its bactericidal function has been similar to that of adults.Eight, skin and receptors of neonatal epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue layer number and integrity base
Ben is the same as an adult.A newborn’s skin is only one-seventh the size of an adult’s.
Skin weight is 13 percent of body weight, much higher than adults.

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