The warmest time for Chinese people


“Beijing’s Spring Festival” Lao She wrote in Dawu painting comic book Publishing House on the 30th of the Year to eat a reunion dinner in Dawu painting gum xing – sustains the good wishes of longevity.Editor’s Note Firecrackers sound in New Year’s Eve, spring breeze send warm into Tu Su.Find Tong Tong, always put the new peach in old character.Yuanri, a poem written by Song Dynasty poet Wang Anshi, describes the scene of the Spring Festival: lighting firecrackers, drinking Tusu wine and exchanging new peach symbols, showing the happy atmosphere and folk life of the festival.On the occasion of the year of the Tiger in 2022, Xiao Fang, professor of folklore at Beijing Normal University, is invited to talk about the familiar and not so familiar New Year’s festival objects: rubber teeth xing, New Year wine and New Year’s Eve dinner.And gently open the literature records of life at the age of the readers, understand the unique age system of Chinese people, feel the rich flavor of life at the age of our ancestors.The New Year brings us into a special time of ceremonies.The abundance of life, the harmony of human nature and the romance of natural things warm the hearts of the Chinese people, meet their ideal of life, and look forward to a prosperous future.Festival is the flower of life, festival is people’s perception of seasonal time nodes, is an important opportunity for the coordination of phenology between man and heaven and earth.The New Year is at the intersection of the old year and the New Year. People gather their feelings and things to celebrate the New Year at this glorious moment, which has become the warmest time for Chinese people since the Zhou and Qin Dynasties.A literature record of life at the age of the Chinese perception of time as people in other countries in the world, has experienced a natural time to social time, but China is a country with a long agricultural tradition, the agricultural life rely on natural conditions, the Chinese concept of time, has a strong natural characteristics, feeling particularly strong at the age of season.The Chinese have a unique age system, with the basic structure of the age corresponding to the seasons of life in four seasons.Chinese people attach great importance to the recording and preservation of life at the age of one’s age. They invented the documentary recording form of life at the age of one’s age very early, and formed a unique documentary tradition of “recording life at the age of one’s age”.Since the southern Liang Zong Howling wrote “Jingchu Shi Ji”, the creation of the literature writing style at the age of age, Chinese history appeared a series of “shi Shi Ji” literature.Hubei han tang Lv Yuan HuaJiLi age, northern song dynasty Ming at the age of the descriptions, meng elders “Tokyo recorded wei menghua” southern song dynasty, yuan fee the HuaJiLi age spectrum, Ming Lu Qihong, Beijing, China, qing Pan Rong positions of the emperor at the age of Beijing JiSheng, Gu Lu qing jia recorded, Pan Zongding at the age of “jinling” and so on, at the age of “remember” influence far and east Asia,Dongguk, Japan, and so on.As long as we gently open the “old” literature, the ancestors of that rich old life will come.In traditional Chinese time life, people attach importance to the four-eight festival, and the four-eight festival is especially important for the New Year.Holidays, Spring Festival, New Year’s day, let’s go to a special ceremony space-time originally cold winter’s day life, because of our festival coming, and suddenly turned into colorful life world, full of life, culture and beauty and romantic festival, warm the heart of the Chinese people, meet with the Chinese ideal of life, but also for the future life filled the anticipation to smoothly.New Year’s Day is the beginning of a new annual cycle, and New Year’s meals have a special symbolic significance.As early as the end of the year and the beginning of the year in the time of the Book of Songs, people gathered at the courthouse and “evocated that he should live forever”.Jin cheng Gong Zi ‘an “pepper Huamin” also said: “Zhao But the beginning of the year, month is Yuan, jue taste but Jane, apart from 100 diseases”.The intrinsic value of the New Year’s diet is to do a good job of body maintenance and mind comfort at the time node of the transition between the old and the new, and to have a definite expectation of the unknown future. This is the spiritual motivation for the Chinese people to attach special importance to the New Year’s diet since ancient times.”Jing Chu when the age of the record” recorded yuan Day diet is unusual, pepper and cypress wine, peach soup, Tu Su wine, gum xing, five xin plate, fu in the loose, but ghost pills and chicken, all have symbolic meaning.This was the flourishing age of Taoism, and the concept of eating and practicing was reflected in the New Year diet festival.Of course, such food concepts and food content constitute the special tradition of Chinese New Year food, we often read about such festival food in the records and poems of ancient dynasties.Here we mainly talk about the familiar or not familiar with the New Year’s festival: xing Xing, New Year wine and New Year’s Eve dinner.Gum tooth xing tooth health and kitchen sugar sweet willingness gum tooth xing that later kitchen sugar, it is the food production of sugar, with viscosity, the six dynasties people will be used as the New Year’s practice of tooth fixation special food, folk custom letter, “gum tooth, cover the glue fixed” (” Jingchu “).Ancient people understood the importance of strong teeth for good health.In the Tang Dynasty, there are still gum teeth xing.Bai Juyi said in yuanri to wine: “Three cups of blue tail wine, a dish of gum tooth xing”;Another “the age of the family dinner show brother and nephew, etc. and also presented zhang Shi Yin judge” poetry cloud: “after the old cup push blue tail wine, spring plate first advised gum tooth xing.”Song Dynasty people aged Dan and similar customs, Hongmai in the quote gum tooth xing xing poetry allusions said: “to xing xing gum teeth, as well as in the age of Dan chewing amber xing, to test teeth off” (see “Rongzhai four brush”).The popular northern saying “good teeth make good health” is the best explanation for this traditional New Year custom.Ming Dynasty, rubber tooth xing has been combined with the custom of worship kitchen, rubber tooth xing is no longer the old Dan solid tooth food, people xing with rubber tooth xing namely maltosugar worship kitchen, “yi set as fat in the dish, wish god ganruyi” (Chen Jianfu “worship kitchen line”).Legend with high viscosity gum tooth xing xing kitchen god, let the annual god heaven to report the kitchen god, or not open mouth, or mouth sweet as Yi.The New Year’s gum tooth xing also becomes the old kitchen sugar, originally is the solid tooth training jump into the human blessing sweet offerings.During the period of the Republic of China, Lu Xun had written “Geng Zi kitchen instant”, “only chicken gum tooth sugar, dian clothes for the flap incense.If there is nothing long in the house, it is not the only yellow sheep.Mr. Lu Xun, who is proficient in ancient ideas, is very clear about the past life of zaotang.Of course, people in the name of the sacrifice kitchen taste this through the millennium of the ancient sugar delicious, but also taste good.From the popular nursery rhyme “New Year comes, sweet melon sacrifices to the kitchen” in northern China, we can appreciate the urgent mood of children looking forward to tasting the sweet melon sacrifices to the kitchen.New Year wine pestilence pray New Year wine.Wine is an important drink in the New Year ceremony, offering sacrifices to god, acacia, pest, blessing and celebration, all with wine as the medium.Thousands of years of wine, wine lingering, wine far-reaching.The New Year is close to the start of spring. The customs of the New Year are full of spring. The Wine of the New Year is also called Spring wine.Lu Zhaolin of the Tang Dynasty wrote: “People sing small wine, flower dance tang Spring.”This kind of spring wine praying for happiness and longevity also had a specific name in the Han and Tang dynasties. In the Han Dynasty, it was called pepper and cypress wine or pepper wine. The wine was made by dipping pepper flowers and cypress leaves to ward off evil spirits and keep healthy.”The New Year long life cup.Cypress leaves with Ming to, pepper flowers by song “.Yu Xin poetry is the han, Wei and six dynasties of the New Year’s wine, to the New Year’s spring wine pray for longevity is the zhou Qin folk tradition.During the Tang and Song dynasties, Tusu wine was popular in the New Year.According to the records in Sui Hua Ji Li, Tu Su wine got its name from legend. According to folklore, Tu Su was the name of cao Nunnery. Some people lived in cao Nunnery.Later generations know the formula of this medicinal wine, but I do not know the name of the person, so it is called Tu Su wine.Some people explain the name of Tu Su wine, saying that the word “Tu Su” means: to kill ghosts and evil spirits and revive people’s souls.Song Dynasty yuan Ri still drink Tu Su, Wang Anshi “spring breeze to send warmth into Tu Su” poem, said the relationship between New Year wine and spring.After the Song Dynasty, Tu Su wine gradually faded out of the Festival, the Ming Dynasty xinsui wine has been named spring wine.Last time when I was a visiting scholar in Japan, on the New Year’s Day of the Gregorian calendar, a university colleague gave me a piece of tusu SAN and a bottle of sake, which proves that this ancient custom still exists in Japan.In any case, the spring wine of the New Year is to dispel the epidemic and pray for spring.In ancient times, there were special ways to drink during the Spring Festival, and drinking started from the young.This was surprising in ancient times when respecting the elderly was regarded as social ethics.Why is this, we see the ancients explain, “the first small wine, to the young, the first wine to congratulate.The old man loses his age, so he loses it with wine.”That is to say, the New Year is coming, and the younger ones should be one year older, which is worth celebrating;The old are dying another year, so I do not congratulate.This New Year’s drinking custom, which arose in the Han Dynasty, was still practiced in the Tang and Song dynasties. Some were confident that they were young, “they knew they were too young to let Tu Su have spring first” (Pei Yizhi), and some were conscious of being old and open-minded, “Tu Su let tu Su be young” (Gu Kuang).The talented but ill-fated Su Dongpo of the Song Dynasty was still on a journey on New Year’s Eve. He slept wild outside Changzhou at night. His mood was sad and miserable, but he was still firm.Hong Mai, a poyang man, said: “Today people drink Tu Su in Yuan Ri. They have been getting along with each other for a long time since they were young, but they come from where they are” (Continuation of Essays by Rong Zhai).New Year wine is the wine of hope, is the blessing of youth, “called the sense of origin, celebrating in children”, we see the children happy New Year, there is a reason for it.Since the Ming and Qing Dynasties, New Year drinking has become a way of social and life entertainment, the Republic of China “Jinling” : “Invited guests and friends yan drink in the New Year, known as drinking spring wine, to the first half of the first month as sheng”.Nowadays, wine is still a necessary drink for Chinese New Year, but most people drink red wine to add a festive atmosphere.Festival wine can be tasted, but do not have to climb the name climb expensive, have it, acacia add to the fun, without it, a cup of green tea, also wake up the brain qingxin.Happy home is the warmest place, but also the safest harbor.The New Year is a huge magnet, drifting people, “have no money, go home for the New Year” “a year not catch, catch the New Year’s eve”.The New Year is a grand festival for family reunion, and the New Year’s Eve dinner is a reunion Eucharist to bid farewell to the old and usher in the new.The New Year’s Eve dinner is the biggest dinner of the year in a traditional society with limited resources.It is also the most ceremonial and symbolic dinner.New Year’s Eve dinner, also called year soup rice, year more rice, sub year feast, reunion dinner, etc.In the Ming and Qing dynasties, “family drinking” was called “Fen Sui” or “tuan Nian”.The traditional New Year’s Eve dinner, the food and dishes are full of meaning.In the north, dumplings are made and boiled. Some dumplings are filled with coins and candies. Whoever eats them will get lucky for the New Year.Dumpling shape, similar to gold ingot, white dumplings with a large filling means prosperity and happiness.On New Year’s Eve in southern China, two dishes are indispensable. One is a fish with both ends intact, symbolizing “abundance every year.”In the old days, it was not easy for poor people in mountainous areas to get a fish for the Spring Festival. In some places, a carved wooden fish was used instead.Now someone has invented a New Year’s fish dish, which is glutinous rice cake.Zi ba fish is not only vivid, but also sweet.The second is the ball, commonly known as yuanzi in southern China, a symbol of round and round.Some dishes are quite common but very special, such as purslane, which appeared in the recipes of Kaifeng’s New Year festival in the Song Dynasty. We can see in The Book “Tokyo Menghualu” that one of the food prepared for the New Year’s Festival is horse’s tooth vegetables (namely purslane).In yingshan, Hubei province, there is a happy dish made by purslane on the dinner table during the Spring Festival. All family members, old and young, have to try it.Folklore calls Purslane “five elements of grass” and “longevity dish”. It has high vitamin content and the effect of clearing heat and detoxifying.According to medical expert introduction, it has very strong inhibitory effect to dysentery bacili, coliform coli, aureate staphylococcus, be praised as “natural antibiotic”.Our ancestors have long recognized the unusual medicinal properties of plants such as purslane, so they formed the custom of eating it at the beginning of the year, in order to make New Year’s Eve.This kind of experiential-based diet therapy custom is quite manifested in the festive food. In the old days, Beijingers must have water chestnuts in the New Year’s Eve dinner, which is homonym for “Bi Qi”. It is said that the family must be reunited and neat when eating the New Year’s Eve dinner.In fact, water chestnuts also have the effect of clearing heat and detoxification, but also the first year to prevent disease dishes.Jinling Shi Shi ji records the “ten Sceneries” of Nanjing people’s New Year’s Eve. People cut ten kinds of vegetables, such as ginger, melon, carrot, golden needle, agaric, winter bamboo shoots, white celery, dried soy sauce, hundred leaf and gluten, into thin slices and fried them with oil.There are yellow bean sprouts do ruyi dishes, etc., all take its auspicious meaning.Suzhou New Year’s Eve dinner, commonly known as “family reunion”.In the New Year’s Eve dinner, there is also a happy dish, but it is made with dried eggplant mixed with other fruits and vegetables.People eat New Year’s Eve dinner, the chopsticks will first taste this, in order to good luck.Zhou Zongtai “Gu Su Zhuzhi Ci” cloud: “Wife nu one room words reunion, fish, melon and eggplant mixed fruit plate.Next zhu frequency teach to hear a future, every family.”(” Qing Jialu “volume 12) Simple homeland-style dishes, because of its meaning and function, become indispensable dishes in the big dinner on New Year’s Eve.It embodies the wisdom of frugal and healthy life of the Chinese people.The New Year’s Eve dinner is a concentrated expression of family affection and wishes. Many foods are specially prepared for the Spring Festival, which has symbolic significance.In Southern Fujian, some dishes are indispensable: Chinese leeks are a taste for new things in the New Year and a new offering to the gods in the early spring.Descendants attach importance to the homonym of “jiu” and “jiu”, implying longevity.Family round the stove table and sit, elders take the lead to eat a pinch of leek, the whole family follow chopsticks to eat leek, while tasting delicacies, while blessing each other, happy.This is about the modern version of the scene of “Presenting a lamb and sacrificing leek” at the end of the ancient Year in The Book of Songs · Bin Laden · July.After the meal some dessert, meaning sweet life;Eat some citrus, meaning good luck;Chew some sugar cane, meaning sweet, rising step by step.Chinese New Year’s Eve dinner is a family reunion dinner.It’s the biggest dinner of the year, the dinner of the gods and men.The deceased loved ones were greeted by the host one by one, please back.Only after our ancestors had eaten the dinner did people begin to enjoy it.This is about the practice of life that Chinese people cultivate their sense of history and ethical consciousness.(Author: Xiao Fang, professor of Anthropology and Folklore at the Chinese Academy of Social Management/School of Sociology, Beijing Normal University) (Source: Guangming Daily)

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.